Migration is the movement of people for the purpose of settling from one place to another over the limit administrative (internal migration) or political boundaries/countries (international migration). In other words, migration is defined as a relatively permanent displacement of an area to the local else. This migration flow took place in response to the difference in income between one area to another, mostly from rural to urban areas. Together with mortality and fertility, migration is integral to the essentially reflexive relationships between population and development (Gould, 2009 :154).
The migration process will affect the development in the origin and destination areas. Migration will increase economic status of family left behind in the origin areas, and this is can impact the development of the areas. In the other hand, development affects the scale and pattern of migration. Migration is a primary symptom and cause of development; development is a primary cause of population movement and redistribution (Gould, 2009 :160).
In general, economic factors is the main reason a person to do the migration. When someone saw in other areas there are many jobs that can improve their standard of living, they will leave their home to that areas. These migration phenomena because economic reasons can be seen from the increasing number of foreign workers who work not in the country of origin. The migration in this globalization era will continue and increase. The process of globalization accompanied by policies of liberalization in the economic field that facilitate labor migration between countries, has resulted in increased massive in international migration, as it occurs in the displacement of financial, capital, goods, and services (Li, 2008).
The impact of migration in destination/receiving areas affects development. Migrants will contribute to rising levels of production at the destination of the move (Gould, 2009 :166). The biggest contribution in the destination areas is from high skilled migrant. This is mainly because the contemporary migrants often involve highly educated and highly skilled migrants, in line with the increasingly rapid globalization process and extends to all countries in the world (Özden et al, 2011). Characteristic of contemporary and skilled migration is a positive aspect in the development.
The contribution of migration , for the country of origin/sending area in various forms, such as the transfer of skills and knowledge, business investment and entrepreneurship (de Haas, 2006). The transfer of knowledge from migrant to their family left behind usually happen in the case of skilled migration.The migrants have contributed to the country of origin in the form of a source of expertise in terms of skills, technologies, markets, sources of capital, the medium to give skills of language, knowledge, culture and act as a contact person to build business relationships or cooperation in other fields. The absent migrants may contribute remittances to the source area, whether for investment or merely for consumption, and/or may themselves return to live and work in the rural areas after a period working away(Gould, 2009 :167).
In the other hand, migration also have negative impact for the origin and destination areas. For the origin/sending areas will lost the young workforce. In the long term, the number of population in sending area will drastically decrease and affects the development in that area. For the destination areas, the negative impact of migration are poverty, environment decreased, unemployment, and settlement problems.
Migration creates investment opportunities and encourage market competition to create and attract the attention of experts and professionals from developing countries to the more advanced countries. The dynamics of international migration in the global era in terms of volume as well as the distribution of destination is a great potential for the development.
(Inayah Hidayati, Researcher in Research Center od Population LIPI)
de Haas, H. 2006. Engaging Diasporas. How government and development agencies can support doiasporas involvement in the development of origin countries, A study for Oxfam Novib. http://www.heindehaas.com.
Gould, W. T. (2015). Population and development. Routledge.
Özden, Ç; C. Parsons, M. Schiff, T. Walmsley. 2011. Where on earth is everybody?” The evolution of global bilateral migration: 1960-2000. VOX, 06 Agustus 2011. http://www.voxeu.org/article/where-earth-everybody-global-migration-1960-2000
Li, Peter S. 2008. “World Migration in the Age of Globalization: Policy implications and challenges”. New Zealand Population Review, 33/34: 1-22.