The Human Right to Health and the related medical aid to developing countries lead to problems with overpopulation in those countries.
Health is one part of human rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Article 25 guarantees the right to a standard of living adequate for the health. "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in the circumstances beyond his control" (www.un.org). Status of health includes physical, mental, and social, not just state that is free of disease, disability, and weakness. Human rights itself is universal and according to the Vienna Declaration (1993) states have obligations to uphold human rights and encourage governments to incorporate the standards contained in the instruments of international human rights into national law (www.ohchr.org).
The challenge for the health right is quite complicated. The human right to health in developing countries has a positive relationship with overpopulation problems. The number of people with high quality will be a valuable asset for the implementation of development programs in a region or country. However, if the number of people whom many not matched by the high quality of the population, will become an obstacle to the success of development programs. The population problems have impacts on the others aspect, such as the human right to health.
Developing countries encounter many challenges in the field of human rights to health. Indonesia, as a developing country with 1.49 per cent per year of population growth, will cause social problems in the community if the government did not seek the severe and maximum to overcome. One of the problems is the human right to health. At the community level, the disease affects the economic development of Indonesia is an investment in human resources. The high morbidity rate in the labour force led to the company's profit is reduced because the employee did not complete his work. Reduce morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases in childhood as well as the successful promotion of family planning will lead to the demographic transition. Mortality declining is the key to health program; mortality improvement also had to be accompanied by public health measure to establish and monitor a cleaner and healthier environment (Gould, 2008: 113). It all certainly needed effort and hard work not only from the government alone but of all segments of society in order to increase further awareness of the importance of health and the human right to that.
In developing countries, the health program for the citizen is not maximizing because they have overpopulation, especially in urban areas. In Indonesia, there are still poor people who do not get medical care because of a lack of identity. Access to health information that is still imbalanced, causing malpractice. The use of the term field of medicine that is less familiar to the patients often complicates the relationship between doctors and patients. Improved health and life expectancy afforded by industrial and technological growth that stabilized food supplies, processed sewage, cleaned and transported water, developed vaccines, improved education, established health records and surveillance and devised effective medical technologies (Jameton and Pierce, 2001: 367).
In the other hand, overpopulation in the developing countries does not hamper the country's health service. With a sound government service system, a citizen can easily access the health system. For example, Indonesia, as a developing country has strategic plans to improve the health system. Fulfilment of health facilities needs to be studied further, because if in fulfilment of what health facilities are not offset by the increase in population every year increases. Some aspects related to guarantee and fulfil the right to health: health facilities and access to all community groups, professional health workers, the availability and accessibility of the commodity field necessary health, especially for poor people, and comprehensive program in a health system that combines the health promotion, disease prevention, cure diseases, and health recovery. This will make a new problem that will add to the problems that have been there before.
Written by Inayah Hidayati - Research Center for Population LIPI
Gould, W. T. (2008). Population and development. Routledge.
Jameton, A., & Pierce, J. (2001). Environment and health: 8. Sustainable health care and emerging ethical responsibilities. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(3), 365-369.