Mortality is several deaths in a given time, place, and proportion of deaths concerning population. The rate of mortality is a measure of the number of deaths in a population per unit time. Demographer uses the infant mortality rate (IMR) and the childhood mortality rate (CMR) to compare the mortality rate. IMR is several deaths at less than 12 months old divide by several live births (Gould, 2009). Infancy is a condition that is vulnerable both to morbidity and mortality (Hassanah and Husaini, 2015). CMR is several deaths aged 0-4 years in five years, divided by the number of live births in that period (Gould, 2009). The function of child mortality rates is to determine the level of health problems among children, assess the health care facility for children and mother, and assess environmental sanitation.
Reducing child mortality rate is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) 2015-2030, which is proclaimed by the United Nations. By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under five years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births (United Nations, 2015). In Indonesia case as a developing country, various efforts for reducing child mortality were undertaken in order to improve the health of children, such as a continuum of care based on the life cycle, a continuum of care by health care (promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative), continuum of care pathway since children home, in the community, in the primary health care facilities, health care facilities and referral (Stalker, 2008).
Reducing child mortality is the key to the success of a country's development. A child is a national asset, the successor to the ideals of the nation. Therefore it is essential for the Government to be able to protect every child's rights to life grow, thrive, free from violence and discrimination; identity, thought and expression level of intelligence and age-appropriate activities wherever it is locating. Reducing child mortality is a significant step to guarantee the rights of children from the Government. There are many ways to reduce child mortality such as strengthening national health systems; expanding immunization programs; enhancing growth monitoring of children; ensuring the survival and improved health of mothers; supporting better nutrition for child and mother; investing in improved reproductive health; making infrastructure investments (World Bank, 2015).
In the developing countries reducing mortality rate, especially child mortality, is a precondition for development. The number of life and healthy children is the asset of the country. In the future, surviving children can be the first modal for the economic development of the country. The development in the health sector will increase community health status. For reduce child mortality, the mother is the success key for this process. Mother should have the capability to protect herself and her children. A mother as manager or organizer of the primary health care in the family has a significant role in improving the health status of family members.
Therefore, mothers should equip with enough knowledge about health behaviour. In this article, I will show about Indonesia's child mortality example for developing countries. Based on the Millenium Development Goals report (2015), the infant mortality rate in Indonesia showed a significant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1,000 live births in 2007, so that the target of 23 per 1,000 live births in 2015 is expecting to be achieving. However, regional disparities are still going on the achievement of targets, reflecting differences in access to health services, especially in the poor and remote areas. Priorities for the future is to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services primarily for the poor and remote areas.
However, reducing the mortality rate may be not a precondition for development, but as a result of development. An immediate effect of development on mortality, as indicated in the transition from the high equilibrium stage of the DTM into the early expanding period, was the reduction in the extent and frequency of crisis mortality (Gould, 2009). The impact of development can be understandable in the increase in revenue/income of the citizen. Revenue is significant to pay medical expenses for income or economic factors, education, employment and housing conditions are interrelated in influencing infant mortality or child. If one of the socio-economic indicators associated with mortality rates of infants and children, it turns out there is a negative relationship.
Written by Inayah Hidayati - Research Center for Population LIPI
Gould, W. T. (2015). Population and development. Routledge.
Hasanah, Nur and Husaini. (2015). The correlation between knowledge and attitude towards child booster immunization at the public health centre in Sungai Ulin Banjarbaru. Proceedings: International seminar and workshop on public health action. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/reader/35383230
Stalker, Peter. (2008). Kita suarakan MDGs demi pencapaiannya di Indonesia (Spoke up MDGs for the achievement in Indonesia-translated). Indonesia : Bappenas.